Unit 1 will cover DNA structure, the replication of DNA, and the process of protein synthesis. There will be two tests in this unit to help break the information up.

DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and it is our genetic material. It is made up of three components: deoxyribose sugar, phosphates, and the four nitrogenous bases of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. It is found in the nucleus of our cells and it is what codes for our genes. We begin Biology B by learning all about this important code. We will study its structure, how and why it replicates, and how it is used to undergo the process of protein synthesis within our cells.

Picture 1: DNA Molecule
Important Terminology: deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base, adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, nucleotide, hydrogen bond, base-pair, purine, and pyrimidine.

DNA Replication.gif

Picture 2: DNA Replication (highlighting the complimentary base pairing)
Important Terminology: leading strand, lagging strand, Okazaki fragments, enzyme, parent strand, and daughter strand.

DNA Worksheets from Class

(will need additional DNA pieces to complete lab)

Protein synthesis is the making of proteins. This is a two part process that can be broken down into transcription and translation. Transcription occurs in the nucleus and it is the process of making RNA from DNA. Translation then takes that RNA information and uses it to make the protein chain.

Protein Synthesis Summary.jpg

Picture 3: Overall Summary of Protein Synthesis
Important Terminology: transcription, translation, nucleus, cytoplasm, amino acid, and protein.


Picture 4: Transcription
Important Terminology: DNA, RNA, nucleus, adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil, codon, and messenger RNA.


Picture 5: Translation
Important Terminology: peptide, protein, messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, amino acid, cytoplasm, codon, and anticodon.

Protein Synthesis Worksheets from Class

Video Reviews:
Transcription Video Summary
Translation Video Summary
Transcription and Translation Video (Bozeman)
Protein Synthesis Animation Video
Amoeba Sisters-Protein Synthesis