Gentry

Honor's Biology will cover similar material to Biology but at an elevated level. You will learn more information and get more details in this course, and you will be better prepared for classes such as Honor's Chem, Honor's Physics, or any of your AP science classes.


Honor's Biology A

Unit 1: Scientific Method
The scientific method is a process that scientists use to answer a question. It is composed of six parts: Problem/Question, Hypothesis, Procedure/Experiment, Data Collection, Analysis, and Conclusion. No matter what area of science you study, it is always based within the scientific method.

Important scientific method terminology: hypothesis, experiment, experimental group, control group, variable, control, placebo
Important graphing terminology: independent variable, dependent variable

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Helpful Video Links-Unit 1:

Unit 2: Biochemistry
In biochemistry we are going to study three of the four major macromolecule groups: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. You will first be given an introduction/review to some major chemistry concepts that will help you to be successful, and those will then be applied throughout our unit.

A quick overview:

Carbohydrates are the humans body's main source of energy. They are composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon atoms and can vary in size and shape. Our bodies breaks down simple sugars, called monosaccharides, very quickly. Complex carbs (or polysaccharides) take much longer to break down because they are composed of long chains of these molecules. These are important to give us long-lasting energy, versus the simple sugars that are more of an energy buzz.

Lipids include our fats, steroids, and waxes. We will focus on the fats because we are relating everything to our digestion. Fats are used for storage and energy. They are higher in caloric value, so we have to be careful sometimes how much we consume and which ones we are consuming. Fats are composed of the same three elements as carbohydrates, and like carbs, can vary in size. The two main types of fats are saturated and unsaturated.

The third group is our proteins. Proteins have numerous functions in the body and are at the center of our ability to do many of our daily processes. They are composed of amino acids and are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms. They can be small or large, and are critical to our survival. One of the most important roles that proteins play is they speed up MANY chemical reactions. We call these enzymes. Enzymes can make reactions go up to one million times faster!

When you look at the process of digestion in the human body, you need to understand that we take in the foods that we eat (which are composed of proteins, carbs, and fats), and the body works to break them down into their most simple parts. This is so that the body can make use of them. "Digestion" is literally a mechanical and chemical breakdown of these foods so that we can obtain the simple parts. We then absorb these simple molecules (amino acids, monosaccharides, and simple fats) into our bloodstream, which will deliver them throughout the body to our cells. Your cells thrive on these materials and use every bit they can to complete all of their jobs!

Helpful Video Links-Unit 2
  • Intro to Biochemistry
    • This is an introduction to our Biochemistry unit. It will give you an overview of the four macromolecule groups. As you watch, take some notes so that you come in with a basic/working understanding of our new unit.
  • Carboydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins

Unit 3: The Cell
All living things are made of one or more cells, and these cells have parts we call organelles. The first division we can make is into the cell type of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are cells that do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles. They are usually smaller in size and include bacteria. They are simplified cells that are highly functional. Eukaryotic cells DO have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles, and they include our plant and animal cells. They are larger in size and tend to be much more specialized in the roles they play.

Plant and animal cells share many of the same organelles, but have a few that are unique. They both have a nucleus, ER, golgi complex, ribosomes, mitochondria, cell membrane, vacuoles (though the sizes and number vary), and cytoskeleton (which includes the cytoplasm). Additionally plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose, chloroplasts to perform photosynthesis, and OCCASIONALLY contain lysosomes (though many plant cells do not). Animal cells, on the other hand, have centrioles to aid in cell division and always have lysosomes. There is a document below that details all of the cell parts you need to know.

allcell.jpg
allcell.jpg



Animal-Cell.jpg
Animal-Cell.jpg



plantcell450.jpg
plantcell450.jpg



Molecules move across the cell membrane of the cell in order to get important materials in or out. This membrane is made up of four main parts: the lipid bi-layer, the channel proteins, the marker proteins, and the receptor proteins. These parts all work together to protect the cell and to undergo the processes of active and passive transport. Passive transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This includes diffusion and osmosis and the body does not have to use any energy to do this. Active transport requires the body to use energy because it is the movement of molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of high concentration.

cell_membrane.gif
cell_membrane.gif


Finally, there are some specialized cells in living organisms that have very specific roles, which means their internal parts/organelles vary. We will learn about several of these, including the red blood cell, white blood cell, egg cell, sperm cell, and nerve cell.

Helpful Video Links-Unit 3:
*This is a multi-part video on YouTube. After watching part 1 from the link above you will immediately be redirected to part 2.

Unit 4: Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Photosynthesis is the process where plants and other photosynthesizing organisms use carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight to make glucose and oxygen. This is a process that occurs in the chloroplasts for plant cells and can be broken down into two parts. The first part is called the "light reactions". In the light reactions light energy is converted and stored into two temporary energy-storing compounds called ATP and NADPH. In this process, which occurs in the pigment found in the thylakoid, the water is also used to make oxygen. In part two of the reaction the ATP and NADPH are used in conjunction with carbon dioxide in the Calvin Cycle (also called the dark reactions) to make glucose. This occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast, which is the dense liquid that surrounds the grana stacks. (see pic below)

Please note that this is a simplified overview of the photosynthesis process...we will study the different energy molecules in detail as well as learn and understand electron carriers.

Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is a process that plants, animals, and other living things go through to make energy. It is a process that uses glucose from the food we eat to make usable energy in the form of ATP. There are two types of cellular respiration available depending on the organism. Below I will detail each.

Aerobic respiration is when oxygen is used. Glucose and oxygen diffuse into the cells and go through a multi-step process to make ATP, carbon dioxide, and water. The first break down is when the glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvic acids in a process called glycolysis. When this happens a net of 2 ATP are made. The pyruvic acids will then enter the mitochondria with the oxygen to go through the Kreb's Cycle (where carbon dioxide is made and NADH and FADH2 are made...think electron carriers!) and the Electron Transport Chain (where the NADH and FADH2 are used to convert ADP to ATP and water is made). By the end of these two processes, 34 additional ATP have been made. This is why the mitochondria is called the powerhouse!

CR.jpg
CR.jpg


However, not all organisms undergo cellular respiration in this way. Yeast go through a process of anaerobic respiration (without oxygen) called alcoholic fermentation. Glycolysis still occurs (where the glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvic acids and 2 ATP, but then the pyruvic acids are broken down further by the yeast and alcohol and carbon dioxide are produced. No additional ATP are formed! A second type of anaerobic respiration is performed by bacteria cells called lactic acid fermentation. Again, the bacteria will begin with glycolysis, but will then break the pyruvic acids down further into lactic acid. This is the liquid that you often times see in your dairy products, like in yogurt or cottage cheese! Animals have the ability to switch to lactic acid fermentation if their cells run out of oxygen in order to use the glucose and make ATP, but the process is not nearly as beneficial because so few ATP are produced.

Unit 5: Ecology
Ecology is the study of the interactions of living things. This is a large unit that could take an entire trimester to learn and teach. In our time we will learn about some major topics within ecology and see how humans have had an impact on the world itself.

The first focus will be with energy transfer. We can see energy transfer in several ways...food chains, food webs, and in energy pyramids. The focus, no matter how you are seeing it, is to show how energy moves from one trophic level to the next. These sequences begin with the producer or autotroph. These are the organisms that make their own food (like plants and photosynthesis). They are eaten by the consumers or heterotrophs, those that must rely on others to obtain their energy.

foodweb.jpg
foodweb.jpg

Above: A food web. Follow the arrows to see where the energy transfers.

trophiclevels.GIF
trophiclevels.GIF

Above: Energy pyramid

The second topic we will cover is the study of populations. We will study how populations grow and are controlled in nature (see pics below), as well as how the interactions between various populations will affect population size. There are many factors that will affect populations that can be categorized by the size of the population itself. For example, density dependent limiting factors generally affect larger populations only. These include competition, predation, diseases, parasitism, and over-crowding. Density independent limiting factors are those that will affect any population size and include drought, flooding, natural disasters, temperature changes, and any season changes.

expgrowth.gif
expgrowth.gif

Above**: two examples of growth patterns. An example of exponential growth would be the human population. Logistic growth is what most populations in nature follow.

The third topic we will cover in this unit will be looking at how the land and earth work-overall interactions-and then we will look at how humans are affecting Earth. We will study the natural cycles of the planet and will learn about succession. Succession is the establishment or re-establishment of a community over time. After we have a firm understanding of how the planet and all of its biotic and abiotic parts work, we will look at a few areas where humans have interfered. Topics will include invasive species, bioaccumulation, pollution, and climate change.

Helpful Video Links-Unit 4

Extra Credit Opportunity-Break 2015


Honor's Biology B
DNA and Protein Synthesis
Unit 1 will cover DNA structure, the replication of DNA, and the process of protein synthesis. There will be two tests in this unit to help break the information up.

DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and it is our genetic material. It is made up of three components: deoxyribose sugar, phosphates, and the four nitrogenous bases of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. It is found in the nucleus of our cells and it is what codes for our genes. We begin Honor's Biology B by learning all about this important code. We will study its structure, how and why it replicates, and how it is used to undergo the process of protein synthesis within our cells.

DNA.gif
DNA.gif

Picture 1: DNA Molecule
Important Terminology: deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base, adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, nucleotide, hydrogen bond, base-pair, purine, pyrimidine, and antiparallel.

DNA Replication.gif
DNA Replication.gif


Picture 2: DNA Replication (highlighting the complimentary base pairing)
Important Terminology: leading strand, lagging strand, Okazaki fragments, enzyme, parent strand, daughter strand, topoisomerase, helicase, DNA polymerase, ligase


Unit 1 will cover DNA structure, the replication of DNA, and the process of protein synthesis. There will be two tests in this unit to help break the information up.

DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and it is our genetic material. It is made up of three components: deoxyribose sugar, phosphates, and the four nitrogenous bases of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. It is found in the nucleus of our cells and it is what codes for our genes. We begin Biology B by learning all about this important code. We will study its structure, how and why it replicates, and how it is used to undergo the process of protein synthesis within our cells.

DNA.gif
DNA.gif

Picture 1: DNA Molecule
Important Terminology: deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base, adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, nucleotide, hydrogen bond, base-pair, purine, and pyrimidine.

DNA Replication.gif
DNA Replication.gif


Picture 2: DNA Replication (highlighting the complimentary base pairing)
Important Terminology: leading strand, lagging strand, Okazaki fragments, enzyme, parent strand, and daughter strand.

Protein synthesis is the making of proteins. This is a two part process that can be broken down into transcription and translation. Transcription occurs in the nucleus and it is the process of making RNA from DNA. Translation then takes that RNA information and uses it to make the protein chain.

Protein Synthesis Summary.jpg
Protein Synthesis Summary.jpg


Picture 3: Overall Summary of Protein Synthesis
Important Terminology: transcription, translation, nucleus, cytoplasm, amino acid, protein, and RNA polymerase.

Transcription.jpg
Transcription.jpg


Picture 4: Transcription
Important Terminology: DNA, RNA, nucleus, adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil, codon, messenger RNA, and RNA polymerase.

Translation.png
Translation.png


Picture 5: Translation
Important Terminology: peptide bond, polypeptide, protein, messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, amino acid, cytoplasm, codon, tRNA synthetase, and anticodon.

Helpful Video Links:

Unit 2: Cell Division
Unit 2 is about chromosomes and cell division. DNA winds around proteins in the cell called histones. When this happens, they take the shape of a chromosome. Humans have 46 chromosomes in their body cells and 23 in the reproductive cells (egg cells for females, sperm cells for males). Our genetic information comes from our parents, and when they combine they make up our traits. Remember though-it all goes back to the DNA!

There are two types of cell division that humans can undergo: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the type of division that produces body cells. The cell grows, replicates its DNA, and then divides through a series of "steps" to make two identical cells-prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Final cytoplasmic division occurs with cytokinesis. While this process doesn't truly happen in steps, we have given the division these names to help us identify the various things that are occurring in the cell during this division.

Meiosis is a division to produce gametes (sex cells). There are actually two divisions that occur because with this process the goal is to make 4 genetically different cells (as opposed to the two genetically identical cells produced by mitosis). The cell will undergo prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis a first time, which we will signify with a "I", and then undergo the process again with prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II, and cytokinesis.

Mitosis:
Mitosis.jpg
Mitosis.jpg

Summary of each mitotic phase:
-Prophase: Nucleus dissolves, chromosomes tighten from chromatin, centrioles begin to move apart, spindle fibers appear
-Metaphase: Chromosomes align in the middle of the cell
-Anaphase: Chromosomes divide, one copy of each going toward opposite sides of the cell
-Telophase: Nucleus reforms, chromosomes unravel, spindle fibers dissolve
*Interphase and Cytokinesis are NOT a part of mitosis. They are simply stages that occur before and after.

Meiosis:
Meiosis.jpg
Meiosis.jpg

By the end you have created four genetically different cells. See below for results of males vs. females

Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis:
Spermatogensis & Oogenesis.GIF
Spermatogensis & Oogenesis.GIF



Unit 3: Genetics
In this unit we will use all of the information we have learned thus far to learn about and understand how genes work. We will discuss the scientists who help get us there, how we can determine what traits may be inherited, and how to trace this information in a family. Finally, we will learn about how this information is currently being used in the world today!

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genes.gif



At this point we are very familiar with what a chromosome is. Humans have 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs of them, in each somatic (body) cell. It is now time that we take a step back and focus on the segments of DNA within our chromosomes called genes. Our genes code for our specific traits and proteins-remember that all of this information lies in our DNA!

Gregor Mendel is the "father of genetics" because he is the one who studied and taught us all of our basic genetic principles. His work with pea plants laid the foundation for all that we know today. When we look at traits we see that they are actually inherited in different ways, so it is important to understand each "mode of inheritance" when studying this. You will be required to know the following: complete dominance, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles, and sex-linkage. All of this information can be used with punnett squares so that we can trace the probability of the inheritance of specific genes/traits.


Punnett Square Example
PunnettSquare.gif
PunnettSquare.gif
The above punnett square shows a monohybrid (one trait) cross following complete dominance. The predicted offspring results would be:
Genotype: 1 AA, 2 Aa, 1aa
Phenotype: 3 Tall, 1 short
There are five modes of inheritance that we will learn in Honor's Biology: Complete dominance, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles, and sex-linkage. With complete dominance the presence of a dominant allele will display the dominant phenotype. This means that in order to show the recessive phenotype, no dominant alleles may be present. Incomplete dominance means there is no true dominance, and the intermediate genotype (heterozygote) will show a blend. Co-dominance means that both allele options are dominant, so the intermediate will show both phenotypes (for example, crossing an orange cat and a white cat will produce a cat that has both orange and white fur). Multiple alleles means that there are more than two allele options-we see this in humans with blood typing. Finally, sex linkage (specifically x-linked) means that the trait is located on the X chromosome. An example of an x-linked trait is colorblindness. With these recessive traits we see that they are much more prominent in males than females because males only need one recessive allele to display the phenotype. Examples of these crosses are below:

Incomplete Dominance

external image Incomplete_dominance.png

Co-Dominance

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Multiple Alleles

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X-Linkage

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Beyond punnett squares we can trace traits through pedigrees. There are additional tools to help us study traits that run within a family, and can also be used as a method of prediction. We will wrap up the unit studying some genetic disorders and how we manipulate DNA.

Pedigree Example:

pedigree1.gif
pedigree1.gif

Helpful Video Links:

Unit 4: Evolution