All living things are made of one or more cells, and these cells have parts we call organelles. The first division we can make is into the cell type of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are cells that do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles. They are usually smaller in size and include bacteria. They are simplified cells that are highly functional. Eukaryotic cells DO have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles, and they include our plant and animal cells. They are larger in size and tend to be much more specialized in the roles they play.

Plant and animal cells share many of the same organelles, but have a few that are unique. They both have a nucleus, ER, golgi complex, ribosomes, mitochondria, cell membrane, vacuoles (though the sizes and number vary), and cytoskeleton (which includes the cytoplasm). Additionally plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose, chloroplasts to perform photosynthesis, and OCCASIONALLY contain lysosomes (though many plant cells do not). Animal cells, on the other hand, have centrioles to aid in cell division and always have lysosomes. There is a document below that details all of the cell parts you need to know.




Molecules move across the cell membrane of the cell in order to get important materials in or out. This membrane is made up of four main parts: the lipid bi-layer, the channel proteins, the marker proteins, and the receptor proteins. These parts all work together to protect the cell and to undergo the processes of active and passive transport. Passive transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This includes diffusion and osmosis and the body does not have to use any energy to do this. Active transport requires the body to use energy because it is the movement of molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of high concentration.


Finally, there are some specialized cells in living organisms that have very specific roles, which means their internal parts/organelles vary. We will learn about several of these, including the red blood cell, white blood cell, egg cell, sperm cell, and nerve cell.


*Use this to help you make flashcards for the different cell organelles!

*Use this as a practice of the microscope parts!

-Quizlet: Cell Organelles

-Quizlet: Transport

-Quizlet: The "Rest"

-Review Video: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

-Review Video: Plant and Animal Cells

-Cell Organelle Video on You Tube: